The folk architecture of Kutna Hora
About 100km from Prague in the district of the town Turnov is located a very unique , historical and romantic structure. The entire lay-out is known by the name Dlask Farm -house(Dlaskův Statek).The structure is located in the Dolankach district on the E65 route about 3km from Turnov.It is unique by the fact that singularly it has over-shadowed all other land-marks in its vicinity.It is another distinct historical experience from Kutna Hora.
It is also one of the best -known and best-preserved historic sights in the Northern Bohemian Region.In its configuration it is a classical example of folk-architecture drawing inspiration from its older german prototype. The walls are usually heavy straight long timbers placed on top of each other at a spacing of about 5cm .They are usually rectangular structures in shape.The space between the timbers forming the walls are filled with mud and painted or mortared.This forms the frame of the structure.The floor is made up of smaller timber members spaced closely to each other.The space is filled up in much the same way as the walls. The whole structure is finished at the top by a complicated net-work of slanted timber members .These are called rafters forming the gable roof.The farm-house has become a United Nations Heritage sight from the year 2010.
The farm-house founded in 1716 was built as a home -stead by a family of farmers the Dlask family.Prominent in this family was the chronicler Josef Dlask.He was also the treasurer.A very educated man he left behind valuable memoirs.These memoirs describe the spiritual and material world of the bohemian farmer of the first half of the 19th century.
The structure covers an area of about 2,500sq.m and was located near the river -bank.During the first half of the 18th century it was relocated to its present site because of incessant flooding from the river. At the expense of the owners a statute of the Holy Mary was installed in the late 18th century. The barns along with the sheds were also reconstructed and walled with stones.
1n 1807 a timbered structure known as Rakousův Sroubek(granary) was relocated there from Maly Rohozce. The relocation of the granary from the near-by district was possibly part of an expansion scheme.
In the late 19th century it was sold by court orders and seized to be the property of the Dlask family.It gained prominence in 1885 during the ethnological exhibitions by czech architects on the theme ´´Wooden Strucures of Northern Bohemia´´. The renowned czech painter Jan Prousek included it in his works during this exhibition.The visitor to the site can examine amongst others :
-Domestic management quarters
-Ploughs used in farming
-Wooden laundry machine and drier
-Timbered structure or farm-house relocated from Maly Rohozce
It is in all regards a nostalgic recollection of peasant life in the 18th and 19th centuries
The object is recommended for those visiting the Kutna Hora ossuary as a variation. it is therefore relevant to give a brief description of the configuration of the structure. In developed places of the world where there is a farm a farm-house is usually provided for products being produced whether animate or plant.However the configuration or arrangement might differ depending on the socio-cultural tendencies of the enviroment.
Unlike Kutna Hora because it was not possible to radically change the nature of the terrain and its undulation. Because of this the structures had to be constructed to align with the terrain.Initially the structures were bungalow- type. The innovation to make them one-storeyed(british definition) began in the 17th century.
The whole structure is put on hewn- stone foundation to a height of about half a meter above ground level.This is done in order to protect the timber from rot resulting from under-ground dampness.
Kitchens and some sort of sitting where visitors are received are located on the ground floor.A chamber is usually provided on the ground floor for use by the older generation.Another important space is the ante-hall adjacent to the sitting area .This is for general circulation.What is today known as bed-rooms are located on the first floor or in the attic It must be noted that whether the structure is only ground floor or storeyed an attic is provided. The attic is usually an extra room or rooms with reduced height usually provided for the younger generation in the case of one-storeyed structure . .Natural lighting is provided by the use of windows embedded in the roof of the attic.This constitutes a seperate unit.The ground-floor is connected to the attic or first floor by a wooden stair-case. The management unit of the whole object is another structure or structures consisting of a granary,cow-shed and stable. In some cases a cellar is provided ,For large agricultural outfits barns are provided . A visitor to Kutna Hora would certainly find the environment a welcome experience.This is more so because it provides more in-sight into czech history and development.